Muzzleloading is an interactive discipline that caters to the original and replica rifles, muskets, handguns and shotguns that were used during Australia’s colonial days. The firearm categories are very detailed, with each having its own classes and subsections. The rifle events are shot from the offhand, cross-sticks/prone, bench rest and sometimes kneeling/sitting positions, while the shotgun events are shot around stations placed various distances from the thrower, shooting 25 clay targets overall. In addition to range shooting, Muzzleloading shooters are often enthusiastic followers of historical events and re-enactments.


Muzzleloading encompasses all different types of firearms in the one discipline, including rifles, muskets, shotguns, revolvers and pistols, but it goes further than that, as each type of firearm has sub-sections. Any shooter who wants to compete in all the available Muzzleloading events in all categories would have to be prepared to shoot more than 30 events and would need several different firearms to do so.


In addition to shooting on the range, Muzzleloading shooters are often enthusiastic followers of Rendezvous events and military re-enactments. The aim of these re-enactments is to replicate, as closely as possible, the dress and equipment of the period of interest. Thus, a person interested in Australian gold rush days will study images and information on the dress, firearms, tools and camp equipment of the period and try to replicate them.

Another popular re-enactment theme is that of military units. The choice is enormous and ranges from the Highland Scottish Regiments to Colonial Volunteers. The aim is the same as for the gold diggers: to dress, equip and camp as the soldiers might have done. An added effort is made to learn the rifle drill of the time and troops in question.

Since the common angle of approach to re-enactment is firearms, it is to be expected that shooting competitions are a prominent part of Rendezvous and military re-enactments. As such, the firearms range from matchlock and flintlock muskets to civilian percussion rifles and shotguns and the targets range from standard 50m paper targets to metal gongs. The one uniting thing that modern participants love is the smell of burnt powder carried on the breeze. Despite the enthusiasm and colorful activities of Muzzleloading re-enactors, most shooting is still conducted at the shooting range and here, the Muzzleloading shooters are as seriously competitive as in any other shooting discipline.

View the NRA Black Powder Target Rifle rule book for international rules.

Firearms and Classes

Percussion, flintlock, matchlock and wheel-locks are the four types of ignition that can be used to fire a muzzleloading firearm. Historically, this takes us from the earliest practical hand-held firearms up to when smokeless powders replaced black powder. This covers the period from the mid-12th century to 1886 when the French introduced the Lebel rifle using an 8mm bottle-neck cartridge loaded with smokeless powder.

Muzzleloading events are divided into several classes. Each class of rifle is shot from the offhand, cross-sticks/prone and bench rest positions, but there are also events shot in the kneeling or sitting positions.

Class 1

Class 1 (Military) comprises original and replica rifles and revolvers that were issued to troops somewhere in the world. The .577″ Enfields and .58″ Zouave rifled muskets shooting minié balls and the Colt and Remington cap and ball revolvers without adjustable sights are included. All Class 1 firearms must be as-issued, meaning unaltered from the original firearm.

Class 2

Class 2 (Traditional) comprises traditional or civilian-style percussion rifles or pistols loaded with a ball and patch. Kentucky long rifles and Hawken rifles, as well as muzzle-loading percussion pistols with rifled barrels are included. Flintlocks may be used in Class 2 events, but percussion firearms cannot be used in flintlock events.

Class 3

Class 3 (Open) only requires that the rifle or pistol uses black powder and lead bullets. The firearm must be fitted with iron sights without click adjustment. Cap and ball revolvers with adjustable rear sights fall into this class. Scopes sights are not permitted.


There are several Firelock classes, which permit the use of original or replica muzzleloading military- or civilian-style muskets, rifles, matchlocks, wheel-locks, flintlocks, smoothbore longarm or single-shot pistol. These firearms may be in any calibre, but must shoot round balls only.


There are two Shotgun classes, which permit the use of percussion and flintlock shotguns to hit clay targets.

Targets and Scoring

All shooting is done at 50m Pistol targets, with the exception of the smoothbore flintlock musket and matchlock events, which are shot at French 200m targets placed at 50m. All offhand events are shot at 50m, while the prone and bench rest events are shot at 100m. Some clubs also program long-range shoots.

To avoid having a sighting-in period, all Muzzleloading events (except Shotgun) comprise 13 shots fired within 30 minutes. The best 10 scoring shots count. Handgun events comprise 13 shots at the 50m targets, but most pistol and revolver events are shot at 25m. The competition for revolvers (Class 1) and pistols (Class 2) is divided into a precession event and a snap or timed fire event.

That covers the main rifle and handgun events, but is by no means all. There are events for flintlock rifle and pistol, military smoothbore flintlock muskets, matchlocks and smoothbore flintlock pistols and more.
Muzzleloading percussion shotgun and black powder cartridge shotgun is shot from five stations 8m from the thrower and flintlock from three stations 5m from the thrower. Each detail is 25 clays. The shooter loads the gun in an area behind the firing station and waits until the range officer calls them forward to the next station.

An interesting insight into shooting these old-fashioned muzzleloading firearms is that in each event the shooter is permitted a certain number of ‘misfires’ before being penalised.

SSAA Muzzleloading International Team Selection Criteria

Selection Policy

There are two selection methods for SSAA International teams: 

  •  Invitational Team:

The National Board or President may appoint and approve an Invitational or Presidents Team. The selection of this team may be done with advice from the National Coaching and Discipline Supervisor and National Discipline Chairman.   

  • Selection Criteria:

The National Discipline Chairman submits a Team selected according to the Selection Criteria to the National Board for approval. The selection is based on merit and must be approved by the National Board.   

To qualify for a SSAA International Team a person

  • must be a current financial member of SSAA
  • must be eligible for, or, hold a valid Australian passport or have an exemption from the SSAA Inc on our Australian nationality requirement.   

See other details in the document “SSAA Inc Information and General Requirement for SSAA Team Members” as approved by the SSAA Inc Board.

Discipline Selection Criteria

Selection will be based on a disciplines Annual National Championship, with competitors from a minimum of two SSAA State and Territory Associations.

Selection will be based on the top ten placings at a disciplines Annual National Championship in the core match or matches and/or the match or matches relevant to the international competition to be contested.

The core match or matches and/or match or matches relevant to the international competition will be determined for each Discipline. Contact the National Discipline Chairman for this information.

Any Annual National Championships may be used as a selection shoot. If a disciplines Annual National Championship is held six months before the scheduled date of an international event, that National Championship will be used as the selection shoot. If a disciplines Annual National Championship is held less than six months before the scheduled date of an international event, the National Championship of the previous year may, with approval, be used as the selection shoot.  Any variation to this requires approval by the National Coaching and Discipline Supervisor or National President or Board.

There is no guarantee that a SSAA Team will be sent to an international event.

All SSAA International Teams are subject to the approval by the National President or Board and discipline funding. 

A competitor can notify the National Discipline Chairman if they wish to be considered for selection as soon as possible and no later than two weeks after the finish of the National Championships. If notification wasn’t given a competitor must indicate their acceptance or rejection of their team position within two weeks of being officially informed of their eligibility by the National Discipline Chairman.  Any variation to this requires approval by the National Coaching and Discipline Supervisor or National President or Board

The Team Selections should be completed by the relevant National Discipline Chairman as soon as possible after their Annual National Championship and submitted to the National Board for approval. 

All Team Members selected according to the Discipline Selection Criteria must be approved by the SSAA National Board before the selection process is complete.

Approved by the SSAA National Board on 18 November 2018, for implementation on 1 January 2019

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